Floor coverings in a wide variety decorate homes, churches, shops, schools and other buildings today. These coverings range from oriental rugs, rich in color and design and created by hand with the skill of the patient, to wide and deep rugs that rotate with electric machines that can produce 40 yards per hour.
The terms carpet and rug are sometimes used interchangeably. Carpet generally refers to a textile floor covering that is not fixed and does not spread across the entire floor. Carpet generally refers to a floor covering that is installed and fixed from one wall to the other. Examples of flat-weave rugs are Navajo Indian rugs, so-called fiber (or grass) rugs, and home-made woven or crocheted rugs. The two main types of rugs are flat fabrics and fleece. Shaggy rugs are by far the most widely used floor coverings.
MACHINE MANUFACTURE OF POLAR CARPETS
In wool rugs, the yarn strands rise from the backing of the rug to create a soft, luxurious surface. The pile can be a loop of yarn or a tuft of yarn with loose ends. The thicker and denser the hair, the greater the wear and tear and maintenance.
The main methods used to produce carpets and rugs today are weaving and tufting. In the weaving process, the fleece threads and the support threads are connected simultaneously. In the tuft, the fleece threads are attached to a pre-made backing. (For text explaining weaving terms, see spinning and weaving.)
The earliest looms produced cloth no more than 27 or 36 inches wide. Technological advances have led to the creation of wider looms that produce wide loom rugs up to 30 feet wide.
Three basic types of electric looms are used in the production of woven rugs. They are Velvet, Wilton and Axminster.
The velvet loom is the least complex of the specialized looms. It is generally used to make plain colored rugs. The pile yarn, or face, is introduced into the loom by means of a large wool beam that contains as many ends of the yarn as there are tufts in the entire width of the carpet. As the wire passes through the hoop, loops of hair form on steel strips, called wires. They are mechanically inserted back and forth into the frame. The height of the thread determines the height of the loop. If you want to cut the pile, knives are attached to the ends of the threads. They cut the loops when the threads are pulled automatically.
The Wilton loom uses the Jacquard mechanism to weave patterned fabrics. The design of a rug is drawn on cross-lined paper and colored threads are selected. The design is then punched into jacquard papers that are stitched and hung on the frame. Each card controls a row of groups. When a card passes over the head of the hoop, its perforations indicate which of the colors of the woolen thread in the hoop will rise to show on the surface. The other yarns are buried in the mat to add more body and strength. The pile is made up of threads. You can create multi-level models using toothed wires.
The Axminster box offers the largest variety of colors. Highly skilled craftsmen thread the frame. Starting at the center of a pattern drawn on checkered paper, work your way to the edge, tying one end of the thread to a spool for each strand in the design. If the carpet is to be 12 feet wide, four 3-foot spools should be rolled in the same sequence of colors. The thread is cut and clamped in parentheses. When the frame is operated, one bracket is lowered at a time and the wire strands are inserted into the face of the mat. They get caught between the warp threads and are tied tightly by the weft. The ends of the wire are turned upwards and cut with a giant shear.
In all three processes, the invisible threads on the back are the jute weft (called fill or fill in carpet weave), the cotton warp chain, and additional fill threads to add thickness and body.