Nicotiana rustica Overview

Nicotiana rustica, commonly known as Aztec tobacco [2] or strong tobacco, [3] is a rainforest plant from the Solanaceae family. It is a very potent tobacco variety, containing up to nine times more nicotine than common Nicotiana species such as Nicotiana tabacum (common tobacco). [4] More specifically, N. rustica leaves have a nicotine content of up to 9%, while N. tabacum leaves contain around 1 to 3%. [5] The high concentration of nicotine in its leaves makes it useful for pesticide production and has a wide variety of specific uses for cultures around the world. However, N. rustica is no longer cultivated in its native North America, as N. tabacum replaced it. [6]
South America
Nicotiana rustica is called mapacho in South America. It is often used by South American shamans for entheogenic purposes, [7] due to its high nicotine content and relatively high levels of beta-carbolines, including harmala harmane and norharmane alkaloids. [8] There are many methods of administration in South American ethnobotanical preparations. In a preparation known as singado or singa, N. rustica is soaked or infused in water and the water is then blown into the stomach.

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The plant is also smoked in cigars, used in enemas, and made into a lick product known as ambil. Finally, N. rustica is a common ingredient in snuff, a smokeless tobacco product often used as nasal snuff. Snuff is often a combination of N. rustica and a number of other herbs, depending on its intended use, including tonka beans, cinnamon, clove sprouts, alkaline ash [4] (creating nu-nu) , Anadenanthera, Erythroxylum, Virola and more. [9]

In Russia, N. rustica is called makhorka (махорка). Historically, makhorka was smoked mainly by the lower classes. N. rustica is a hardy plant and can be grown in most of Russia (unlike N. virginiana, which requires a warm climate), was more readily and economically available and did not depend on transportation to a country with a highway underdeveloped. network transport and weather problems. This remained that way until common tobacco became widely available in the 20th century. During the Soviet period, rustic tobacco was an important industrial crop of agriculture. At that time, dozens of varieties were bred, some of which were considered to be of equal quality to N. virginiana. In modern times, makhorka is still sometimes smoked by peasants and farmers due to its high availability and being almost free for them.
The plant is called Thuốc lào in Vietnam and is most commonly smoked after a full meal to “aid digestion”, or alongside green tea or local beer (most commonly cheap bia hơi). A “rít” of thuốc lào is followed by a flow of nicotine into the bloodstream which induces severe dizziness lasting several seconds. Heavy smokers struggled with heavy smoke volume and high nicotine content; side effects include nausea and vomiting.

The main difference between smoking thuốc lào and the use of other tobaccos lies in the method of consumption, in which thu thc lào is consumed with a water pipe. The smoker is presented with a bamboo pipe called điếu cày (English: “farmer’s pipe”) or a ceramic water pipe called điếu bát. Sometimes a less common pipe known as điếu ống can also be smoked. The tube is filled with an adequate amount of water and a small amount of thuốc lao is pressed into the container.
The tobacco is then ignited and inhaled to create a body of smoke within the pipe, before exhaling the smoke, reversing the process of air in the pipe as the tobacco is extinguished. The smoker then inhales sharply, usually tilting the pipe to an almost horizontal position (but not completely, as water would come out of the mouth).

Maraş otu (English: Maraş weed) is a chewy variant of Nicotiana rustica commonly used by people living in Maraş, Turkey and other areas of the country. Maraş Otu is a blend of Ash Oak and rustic Nicotiana reminiscent of henna. They use it by putting the mixture under their lips like Swedish snus or Afghan naswar. It is recognized as a drug by drug activists. [10] May contribute to mouth cancer. [eleven]

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